comp.os.cpm Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) - January 2005

NB: ALL e-mail addresses have now been "spoofed" to (attempt to)
fool "spambots". Watch out for underscored "keywords" eg. _TA_
--> @, _MOC --> .com etc!

Changes from the previous FAQ are marked with a "|" in the first 
column, additions marked with a "+".  Corrections or additions to: 
      - please put "CP/M FAQ" in the subject line. 
I wish to thank the following people for their contributions to this FAQ: 
  John D. Baker           <jdb8042_TA_blkbox_MOC> 
  David I. Baldwin        <dibald_TA_netcom_MOC> 
  Ralph Becker-Szendy     <RALPH_TA_SLAC_TOD_STANFORD_UDE> 
  Axel Berger             <Axel_Berger_TA_k2_TOD_maus_ED> 
  Hal Bower               <HalBower_TA_worldnet_TOD_att_TEN> 
  Gene Buckle             <geneb_TA_nwlink_MOC> 
  Frank Cringle           <fdc_TA_cliwe_TOD_ping_ED> 
  dawa                    <dharma_TA_omen_MOC_UA> 
  Mike Finn               <mfinn_TA_worldnet_TOD_att_TEN> 
  Ramon Gandia            <rfg_TA_nome_TEN> 
  Howard Goldstein        <71435_TOD_1203_TA_compuserve_MOC> 
  Mike Gordillo           <S0621126_TA_dominic_TOD_barry_UDE> 
  Trevor Gowen            <cpmspectre_TA_blueyonder_OC_KU> 
  Stephen R. Griswold     <gelfling2_TA_juno_MOC> 
  Roger Hanscom           <rzh_TA_dgs_TOD_dgsys_MOC> 
  Lee Hart                <leeahart_TA_earthlink_TEN> 
  Ulrich Hebecker         <du124_TA_fim_TOD_uni-erlangen_ED> 
  Gottfried Ira           <ira_TA_iue_TOD_tuwien_TOD_ac_TOD_at> 
| Herb Johnson            <hjohnson_TA_retrotechnology_MOC>
  Jeffrey Jonas           <jeffj_TA_panix_MOC> 
  Helmut Jungkunz         <helmut_TOD_jungkunz_TA_bigfoot_ED> 
  Tom Karlsson            <tomk_TA_student_TOD_docs_TOD_UU_TOD_SE> 
  Don Kirkpatrick 
  Kirk Lawrence           <kirk_TOD_lawrence_TA_3rd1000_MOC> 
  Mark Litwack            <litwack_TA_scotty_TOD_dccs_TOD_upenn_UDE> 
  Mike Mallett            <mike_TA_sharpuser_TOD_freeserve_OC_KU> 
  William P. Maloney      <aq743_TA_cleveland_TOD_freenet_UDE> 
  Paul Martin             <pm_TA_nowster_TOD_demon_OC_KU> 
  Russell Marks           <russell_TOD_marks_TA_ntlworld_MOC> 
  Don Maslin               
  Thomas J. Merritt       <tjm_TA_cgt_MOC> 
  Udo Munk                <udo_TA_umunk_TOD_GUN_ED> 
  Alan Ogden              <arog_TA_BIX_MOC> 
  Tim Olmstead            
  Keith Petersen          <w8sdz_TA_Vela_TOD_ACS_TOD_Oakland_UDE> 
  Matthew Phillips        <matthew_TOD_phillips_TA_chch_TOD_ox_TOD_ac_TOD_uk> 
  Jay Sage                <sage_TA_LL_TOD_MIT_UDE> 
  Curt Schroeder          <cschroed_TA_hercii_TOD_mar_TOD_lmco_MOC> 
  Peter A. Schuman        <schu0204_TA_gold_TOD_tc_TOD_umn_UDE> 
  Tim Shoppa              <shoppa_TA_alph02_TOD_triumf_TOD_ca> 
  Scot Silverstein        <ScotSilv_TA_worldnet_TOD_att_TEN> 
  Kevin Spears            <kspear_TA_ss0_TOD_eng.wayne_UDE>  
  Tom Sullivan            <tsullivan_TA_mail_TOD_fwi_MOC> 
  Tilmann Reh             <tilmann_TOD_reh_TA_hrz_TOD_uni-siegen_TOD_d400_ED>  
  Bill Roch               <broch_TA_thegrid_TEN>  
  Geir Tjoerhom           <geirt_TA_nvg_TOD_unit_TOD_no>  
  Jack Velte              <velte_TA_cdrom_MOC>  
  Juergen Weber           <weberj_TA_dia_TOD_informatik_TOD_uni-stuttgart_ED> 
  Jeffrey J. Wieland      <wieland_TA_ea_TOD_ecn_TOD_purdue_UDE> 
  David Wilson            <david_TA_cs_TOD_uow_TOD_edu_UA> 
  Randy Winchester        <randy_TA_tcm_TOD_mit_UDE> 
  Frank Zsitvay           <frank_TOD_zsitvay_TA_bytewarrior_TOD_altcit_TOD_eskimo_MOC> 
While this FAQ is not intended to be an advertisement for any product, 
please note that some of the contributors have a financial interest in 
some of the items mentioned.  Your editor has NO financial interest in 
anything mentioned in this FAQ. The most recent copy of this FAQ can be 
found at:
Another resource was the Z80 Support Home Page maintained by Thomas Scherrer. The former mirror site of that is now maintained by Gaby and can be found at:

Q0: Introduction - "What is CP/M? And why should anybody care?"

A: (Trevor Gowen, Lee Hart) 
   [FTG] - Almost 30 years ago I began to write computer programs as a 
   young scientist at University in the U.K. For useful work the only 
   choice was mainframe based high-level languages such as Algol and 
   Fortran (recently "standardised" in 1966). At the lowest level I 
   learnt "machine code" on a PDP-8S - booting up consisted of toggling 
   in a dozen or so instructions via binary, front-panel, switches to 
   enable a simple punched tape reader; an improved tape loader would 
   then be read, finally allowing loading of a "highish" level language 
   (interpreter?) - FOCAL (I hope I've got the name right), a little 
   like the later BASIC. This process took about 15 mins. of the 30 mins. 
   "slot" allocated - if you were lucky! 
   The nearest one (as a user) got to an "operating system" (as we now 
   understand the term) was the "job control language" (JCL) required 
   to submit a program for execution on the mainframe. This was as much 
   concerned with the charging of run-time and resource costs to the 
   "user" as well as the running of the program. On some mainframes 
   (notoriously I.C.L.'s in the U.K.) it was perfectly possible to write 
   a simple, but useful, FORTRAN program that was shorter (in terms of 
   the line number required) than the lines of JCL needed to set up the 
   By the time I'd finished my post-graduate studies and began gainful 
   employment single-board "microcomputer development systems" had 
   begun to appear as well as mini-computer systems with their compact 
   (cf. mainframes) disc-drives eg. DEC's PDP-11 variants. I became 
   familiar with my first operating system at this point, and the 
   file system utility, PIP, later to (re-)appear within CP/M - I'll 
   pass over to Lee now ...  
   "CP/M was the first generic operating system for microcomputers. Without 
   CP/M, every brand of computer had its own unique operating system(s). 
   Programs could not be shared between computers. Software had to be 
   rewritten for each different type of computer. 
   One solution is to make all computers alike (what we do today). But this 
   locks computer hardware into a rut. It becomes very difficult to make 
   improvements, because each new model has to have hardware identical to 
   all the old computers or the old software won't work. 
   Another solution is to force users to buy new software every time the 
   hardware is upgraded (again, what we do today). But this is expensive; 
   you have to keep reinventing the wheel, as the hardware and software 
   gets redesigned every few years. 
   CP/M showed us another approach. CP/M is an Operating System; a set of 
   programs that hide the differences between computers. Then all computers 
   look the same to any program. You could buy a word processor (like 
   Wordstar) or a spreadsheet (like Supercalc) or a high level language 
   (like BASIC) and it would run on any computer running CP/M. 
   At its height, CP/M was the second most popular operating system on 
   every computer (after the manufacturer's own proprietary operating 
   system). Because it was also a complete software development 
   environment, CP/M also enabled you to write software that was 
   machine-independent, and indeed, even to move CP/M itself to other 
   CP/M is still important because it is the model that shows that the 
   present way we handle computer hardware and software is not the only 
   [FTG] - In the U.K. CP/M became known as an industrial standard 
   o.s., especially for process-control micro-computer systems. It was 
   probably more well known however as the underlying o.s. for the 
   Amstrad CPC and PcW series of "home computers" and "word processors". 
Q1: I just became a proud owner of a cool old machine..... 
A: (Herb Johnson, Tim Shoppa) 
   So you have acquired an old system, not one of the all-in-one systems 
   like Kaypros or Osbornes, but rather one with lotsa cards in a 
   cardcage. But...  no disks, no manuals, maybe even no hard or floppy 
   drives.  "Hey, *I* remember these systems! I've always wanted one of 
   these!" you say. And now you need some help to get it running. 
   We hate to sound discouraging - we like to help owners of old 
   equipment after all - but we also want to set people's expectations 
   before they spend a lot of time and/or money.  We need be clear as 
   to what it takes to "own" an older, pre-IBM PC system. These comments 
   are primarily for multi-card systems but may also be of interest to 
   people with Kaypros or other one-card systems. 
   You will need to have some degree of knowledge of digital 
   electronics, and have some electronic test equipment.  Do not expect 
   "the net" to instantly give you the knowledge to fix all your 
   problems, at least until you've identified them! There is no consensus 
   about the necessary amount of knowledge or equipment: a digital voltmeter 
   for sure, a scope is reasonable, a logic analyzer... probably not. You 
   will learn from the experience of debugging and maintaining an older 
   You will discover that these systems may not be amenable to using 
   IBM PC stuff, that they may need 8-inch floppy drives, that these 
   systems may not support hard drives. In some cases, these systems 
   may not even run all that well even with the original 8-inch drives 
   or wierd hard disk controllers!  When you also discover you can't 
   get the parts without spending more money, you may lose interest. 
   But many people like these older systems *because* they don't 
   use IBM-type technology! 
   To most people these days, a BIOS by definition is in ROM, so it 
   automatically comes with the hardware.  You will learn that the CP/M 
   BIOS gets loaded off the boot floppy and lives in RAM.  You'll need 
   BIOS source code to do any tinkering, and you may have to 
   disassemble it to obtain the source.  And other documentation like 
   manuals may be hard to obtain. If you don't know what these words are, 
   other FAQ items will describe them. 
   So we'll help you in your search for the original boot disks, the 
   original type of floppy drives, and some software to run, but don't 
   think you'll just add a hard drive and some (5.25-inch) floppy 
   drives and off you'll go! 
Q2: I'd like to sell/find a home for my old computer. What is it worth?
A: (Herb Johnson) 
   Other than "collectables", price depends on the interest AND finances 
   of the potential buyers, and general availability. All these vary over 
   time. Also, shipping costs and efforts, disks, docs, and condition 
   contribute to value. The rest of this answer discusses these points. 
   Make a list of what you have to offer: computer types, features, and 
   conditions. if it's a bus-based system, what cards are in it? Find 
   all the docs and disks, particularly the boot disks. Check the 
   system out if you can, and make *multiple copies* of the boot 
   disks.  Put one in the disk drive, one with the docs. Take notes. 
   Weigh the system, its floppy drives and its documents and disks 
   (separately if they are heavy); decide if you want to ship or just 
   want local pickup. If you ship, you will have to pack it carefully 
   and take it to the shipper.  Figure 25 to 50 cents a pound 
   Post a message in comp.os.cpm describing your system, its condition, 
   and where you are located.  Disclose any special conditions the new 
   owner should know:  "museum quality", "good for parts", "local 
   pickup only", "cost of shipping", "will help you", whatever.  Owners 
   often recount their history of use to add a human dimension to it 
   and often makes negotiations smoother and faster.  You'll eventually 
   end up working through all this anyway, so why not do it up front? 
   You'll probably get some replies that will inform you on what you 
   have and the level of interest in it. Use your common sense about 
   all this.  One virtue of offering old computers is that their 
   usually minimal value will not be of interest to scam artists! 
   You can try to donate your computer to a school or charity but they 
   will most likely refuse or junk it.  There is so much IBM-PC 
   compatible stuff around that is considered preferable, and IT gets 
   junked most of the time! If you put an ad in the newspaper be 
   prepared for a lot of "will it run Windows?" phone calls. You can 
   take it to a hamfest or flea market, but you may end up abandoning 
   it at the end of the day. 
   What is it worth? First, if you think it is a "collectable" computer, 
   you probably know enough to search the popular Web auctions to get some 
   idea of demand and value. But keep in mind an auction sale will only 
   inform you on what those people offered that day on that system: prices 
   will vary with time, condition, etc. Also, auction prices may be 
   higher OR lower than private sales. 
   Many times, however, deals are "I want to find a good home for my 
   old computer", and the primary concerns are covering shipping costs 
   and some extra for the effort. Value beyond that level, but short 
   of "collectables", is mostly a matter of luck and/or dilligence. As 
   in any transaction, use good judgement; do some preparation and decide 
   how much effort you will put to it; and be helpful and informative. 
Q3: Does CP/M stand for anything?
A: (Don Kirkpatrick) 
   There are at least three popular answers - Control Program for 
   Microcomputers, Control Program for Microprocessors, and Control 
   Program/Monitor.  The issue is clouded by authors of popular CP/M 
   books giving different answers.  According to Gary Kildall (the 
   author of CP/M), in response to a direct question on the PBS show 
   "The Computer Chronicles" following Computer Bowl I, the answer is: 
   Control Program for Microcomputers.  This is also consistent with 
   DRI documentation.  See, for example, p. 4 of the DRI TEX manual. 
Q4: What ever happened to Digital Research and Gary Kildall?
A: (Don Kirkpatrick) 
   DRI was bought out by Novell and subsequently sold off to Caldera, 
   which currently owns the copyright to all DRI software. 
   Personal computer pioneer Gary Kildall, who but for a single failed 
   business deal might have enjoyed the wealth and fame of Bill Gates, 
   died July 11, 1994, in a Monterey hospital at age 52. 
   Kildall was taken to the hospital after suffering a concussion in a 
   fall.  Evidence indicates Kildall suffered a fatal heart attack.  It 
   is unclear if the two conditions were related. 
Q5: Is CP/M in the Public Domain?
A: (Jay Sage, Don Maslin, Tilmann Reh, Kirk Lawrence, Tim Olmstead, 
   Herb Johnson) 
   On Sept 10, 1996, Caldera, the company that bought all of the 
   Digital Research assets from Novell. The current (year 2000) status 
   of CP/M is not available from their public information at their 
   Web site and it has no mention of CP/M or DR-DOS. Some private CP/M 
   sites reference a link to "": that site is apparently 
   not available by that name. Hower a search for DR-DOS found the info. 
   Lineo, Inc. now owns DR-DOS (Also known as Novell DOS or OpenDOS) and 
   WebSpyder. You will need to contact them for help on their products. 
   You can reach them via the following methods; 
                   Tel: 801-426-5001 
                   Fax: 801-426-6166 
                   E-mail: info_TA_lineo_MOC 
   On the Lineo site, under "news events", Lineo Inc. is profiled as formerly 
   Caldera Thin Clients, formed in 1998 from Caldera, and renamed to Lineo 
   in 1999. Also on the Lineo site, there is a DR-DOS product link to 
   which describes DR DOS 7.03 as a "thin client solution...formerly of 
   Digital Research". This product appears to be available for download 
   with an emulator under Linux; or as a CD-ROM for sale at a modest price. 
   There is no reference to CP/M on any of the active sites referenced above. 
   The last source for new, legal copies of CP/M (with documentation, 
   $9, plus shipping), is: 
              California Digital, Inc. 
              17700 Figueroa Street 
              Gardena CA 90248 
              310-217-1951   Fax
   There exists a privately maintained web site with many DRI programs 
   and manuals. (Caldera is aware of this site and has given its 
   permission to present the material.) Available for download are: 
              CP/M 2.2 (binary, source, manuals) 
              CP/M 3.0 (binary, source, manuals) 
              CP/M-68K (binary for v1.2, and v1.3, no manuals yet) 
   The software is licensed free to non-profit users. This includes 
   individual users. Commercial licenses are available, but without any 
   form of support.  The main site has moved to:
    Or its mirror: (At present not set-up correctly!)
   On the other hand, there have been lots of greatly improved clones, 
   including ZCPR3 for the command processor and several replacements 
   for the BDOS.  Some of these are commercial (e.g., ZSDOS/ZDDOS), but 
   many have been released to the public.  Most of the latter can be 
   obtained from and many BBSs. 
   There is also a CP/M-Plus replacement named ZPM3, written by Simeon 
   Cran. It offers much more performance and some additional features 
   compared to CP/M-Plus. An extended CCP, the ZCCP, is also available. 
   Unfortunately, it still seems to have some bugs.  ZPM3 and ZCCP are 
   free! However no sources as Simeon won't give them away. 
   New legal copies of CP/M-86 were still available, for $75, from: 
              DISCUS Distribution Services, Inc. 
              17607 Vierra Canyon road 
              Salinas, CA 93907-3312 
              (408) 663-6966 
   And CP/M-68K is available from: 
              James Knox 
              1825 East 38 1/2 
              Austin, TX  78722 
              (512)473-2122 (FAX) 
Q6: Where are the CP/M archives?
A: (Don Maslin, Ralph Becker-Szendy, Paul Martin, Ulrich Hebecker) 
   Simtel20 is no more.  Six sites that stock CP/M files are: 
     (at present unavailable!) 
   As of 25 March 1998, people have been reporting difficulty reaching 
   the site and it may be no longer. 
   The main archive is  Assuming the availability of 
   anonymous ftp, look into the subdirectories of /pub/cpm.  There is a 
   *lot* there!  One of the first directories to check is starter-kit. 
   It contains everything you need to get up and running. 
   If you wish to submit material to, contact: 
              Jeff Marraccini 
              Senior Computing Resource Administrator 
              Oakland University 
              Rochester, MI USA 48309-4401 
              jeff_TA_vela.acs.oakland_UDE <- Work 
   He will send you instructions and passwords necessary to perform 
   an ftp upload. specializes on CP/M programs for the DEC Rainbow, 
   but has also some generic CP/M software such as a Micro Emacs, the 
   HI-TECH Z80 C compiler and a few games.  Questions about this site 
   can be directed to Tom Karlsson, <tomk_TA_Student.DoCS.UU.SE>, the site 
   There is a European file server group, named TRICKLE.  This group 
   mirrors oak.oakland and other archives.  For more information, get 
   in touch with your local TRICKLE operator. 
   There is a longrunning CP/M file archive with a focus on Microbee 
   computers at:
   and some DOS<->CP/M file utilities at: 
Q7: Can I subscribe to com.os.cpm via E-Mail?
A:  (Keith Petersen, Trevor Gowen) 
     Unfortunately the list server closed down at the end of 1999. 
Q8: What languages/compilers/databases/editors are still available? 
A: (Ralph Becker-Szendy, Ulrich  Hebecker, Jay Sage, Gene Buckle, 
    Helmut Jungkunz) 
   Unfortunately, SLR sold out to Symantec and all products except for 
   one DOS (or Windows) tool have been withdrawn from the market (what 
   a shame).  However, The Computer Journal does carry the excellent 
   ZMAC package including a macro relocatable assembler, linker, and 
   librarian.  Except for the speed, ZMAC is better and cheaper than 
   the standard SLR tools. 
   MIX C and other MIX products are available from: 
              Ed Grey 
              P.O. Box #2186 
              Inglewood, CA 90305 
   Hi-Tech C V3.09 for CP/M is now freeware.  The authors are still 
   maintaining their copyright, but are allowing free use for both 
   private and commercial users without royalty.  The original is on 
   their bbs in Australia, at +61 7 3300 5235.  Copies can be obtained 
 /pub/rainbow/cpm/c /pub/8051c/ /pub/cpm/hitech-c
   Hi-Tech also offers a Z80 cross compiler for DOS or Unix supports 
   compilation of CP/M programs. The cross compiler is commercial 
   software, but a working demo is available from their ftp and web 
   The Computer Journal still offers BDS C, in both the original, 
   straight CP/M version and in a version that includes Z-System 
   support.  The package, with both versions of the compiler and a very 
   large manual, is only $25. 
   Micro Emacs is available from: 
   Public domain CP/M programs are available via: 
              Elliam Associates 
              Box 2664 
              Atascadero, CA 93423 
   In the past, Elliam has sold Turbo Pascal, Uniform, Nevada COBOL, 
   SuperCalc, and much more.  Call for availability and price. 
   WordStar 4.0 is available from: 
              Trio Company of Cheektowaga Limited 
              3290 Genesee Street 
              P. O. Box 594 
              Cheektowaga, NY 14225-0594 
   Dynacomp stills sell CP/M software (or to be accurate, they still 
   had several dozen CP/M programs in the 1992 catalog.) It is the 
   kind of programs which ought to be written in BASIC: Typing tutors, 
   little engineering programs like calculation of the stiffness of 
   beams, education math programs. Their address is: 
              178 Phillips Road 
              Webster, NY 14580 
              (800)828-6772 orders 
              (716)265-4040 support 
   There is no known U.S. source to purchase the following programs: 
        Any Microsoft product (M80, L80, F80, Pascal, BASIC) 
   Most have been "abandoned" by their makers, but not placed in the 
   public domain. There is now a site specializing in making available 
   commercial abandoned software. You may find a copy of what you seek 
   at The Commercial CP/M Archive:
   For our European readers, much is available in Germany.  dBASE, 
   WordStar 3.0, Multiplan 1.06, SuperCalc PCW, and Microsoft Basic 
   (Interpreter and Compiler), M80, L80, CREF80 , and LIB80 can be 
   ordered in either PCW format or C128 (also native 1571) format from: 
              Wiedmann Unternehmensberatung & EDV-Handel 
              Hauptstrasse 45 
              73553 Alfdorf 
              Tel: +49-7172-3000-0 (Inside Germany use 0-7172...) 
              Fax: +49-7172-3000-30 
   They are marketed as "for the C128", however the disks are in KAYPRO 
   IV format, and since the C128 uses the same screen codes as ADM-31 
   or KAYPRO, it's probably interesting for people with other CP/M 
   machines as well.  Everything is said to come with a German language 
   manual and each one is offered for DM 149.50 , including sales tax 
   of 16%, which you could probably somehow get a refund on if living 
   outside the EC. 
   Since TCJ no longer seems to operate as a Z-System distributor, Jay 
   Sage has made the software available for free at Gaby Chaudry's home 
   -page. All that you have to do is fill in a download registration from 
   (free), so the authors have an idea of what is going on. 
   Z3PLUS (for CP/M Plus), NZCOM (for CP/M 2.2), Z-Systems complete with 
   Z3COMs and ZHELPs plus all the Z-Tools, as well as the C128 disk wonder 
   Juggler (now: free!) via ftp download at: 
  (German page) ==> zsystem software  (International) 
               Helmut Jungkunz 
               Wirtstr. 10
               81539 Muenchen, Germany 
               Tel.: +4989-69737382 
               BBS : +49.8801.2453  (24 hours) "ZNODE 51" 
   Please don't miss Gaby's home page (the best German CP/M page) at featuring her Computer Museum and lots of valuable 
   You can get C128 CP/M Plus (DM 80.-) from: 
              Schaltungsdienst Lange Berlin Tel.: 030/7036060 
   VDE is a very popular free editor that uses WordStar key bindings. 
   It can be obtained from
   for a plain vanilla CP/M system or
   for those running a Z-system. 
Q9: Where can I find Z80 math routines?
A: (Roger Hanscom, Hal Bower) 
   Programmers looking for examples of commonly used Z80 assembler 
   routines may want to look at "Z80 Assembly Language Subroutines" by 
   Leventhal and Saville.  It was published by Osborne/McGraw-Hill in 
   1983 (ISBN 0-931988-91-8), and it 497 pages long.  It also contains 
   general programming information, as well as a summary of the Z80 
   instruction set and reference data for the Z80 PIO.  Assembler 
   routines given in the book fall into the following categories: 
        - code conversion      -array manipulation and indexing 
        - arithmetic           -bit manipulation and shifts 
        - string manipulation  -array operations 
        - I/O                  -interrupts 
   For transcendental routines, it is generally better to use a high 
   level language, such as Hi-Tech C, where they are built-in. 
   Basic 16-bit four-function math (add, subtract, multiply and divide) 
   are available in source code as modules within the SYSLIB collection 
   of utilities (SMTHxx).  SYSLIB Version 3.6 is freely available, and 
   Version 4.x was released in source and linkable (SYSLIB.REL) form 
   for non-commercial use only.  Joe Wright still holds the copyright 
   as Alpha Systems as far as I know, and Hal Bower has maintained the 
   code since circa 1987. 
Q10: What new CP/M computers are available?
A: (Ralph Becker-Szendy, John D. Baker, Tilmann Reh, Ramon Gandia, 
    Hal Bower, Dawa) 
   The YASBEC (uses a 64180, has  SCSI interface), written up in TCJ, 
   issues #51 and #52.  It is important that the YASBEC uses a 
   proprietary bus system. 
   The CPU280 (uses a Z280, an IDE interface is available), also 
   written up in TCJ, issues #52 and #53. Circuit boards are available 
   from The Computer Journal.  CPU280 uses the ECB-bus which allows 
   many other I/O cards to be connected. 
   Ampro LittleBoard products are no longer available from Dean Davidge 
   nor are the SB180/SB180FX from Micromint. 
   Another CP/M machine is the PalmTech CPUZ180, designed and built in 
   Australia. The complete SBC fits on a 6"x4" and runs at 18MHz. 
   Included are floppy and IDE hard disk controllers, color/monichrome 
   video controller, IBM PC/XT keyboard interface, printer parallel 
   port, two serial ports, real time clock, 1 Meg ram, amd many other 
   features.  Complete details can be found at:
   and may be ordered from: 
               Ramon Gandia <rfg_TA_nome_TEN>       tel. 907-443-7199 
               Anvil Technology                    or 907-443-2437 
               Box 970, Nome, Alaska 99762-0970  fax. 907-443-2487 
   Recent enquiries (April) have discovered that there are very few 
   boards left and that once they are sold no more will be produced. 
   And the P112 from D-X Designs Pty Ltd is a single board CP/M 
   compatible computer with the footprint of a 3.5" floppy disk drive. 
   It provides a Z80182 (Z-80 upgrade) CPU with up to 1 MB of memory, 
   serial parallel and diskette IO, and realtime clock in a 3.5-inch 
   drive form factor.  Powered solely from 5V, it draws 150mA 
   (nominal:  not including disk drives) with a 16MHz CPU clock. 
   Details can be found at:
   and may be ordered from: 
               Dave Brooks <daveb_TA_iinet_TEN_UA> 
Q11: What is this I hear about a CP/M CD ROM?
A: (Jack Velte) 
   The disk is no longer being offered by Walnut Creek. However, copies 
   of it are available for $30.00 each, including shipping, from: 
              Timer Saver 
              521 Sycamore Dr 
              Windsor, CO 80550 
   It contains over 19,000 files with executable programs, source code, 
   documentation, and other materials.  Included are the the entire 
   Simtel20 pub/cpm archives, the contents of some major bulletin 
   boards, and the personal collections of several leaders in the CP/M 
   community.  You'll find: 
      Assemblers, compilers, code libraries, and programming tools 
      Editors, word processors, spreadsheets, calculators 
      Disk, printer, modem and other system utilities 
      Archive and compression tools 
      Telecommunication software for users and BBS operators 
      Articles from user's group journals and other publications 
      Games and educational software 
      Help files 
   You'll also find CP/M emulators and other tools for working with 
   CP/M files under DOS, OS/2, and Unix.  Most programs include not 
   only documentation but also complete source code.  Programs for all 
   different computers are on the disc: Kaypro, Osborne, Commodore, 
   Amstrad, Starlet, and others.  This disc comes with a MSDOS view 
   program which allows you to view, decompress, or copy files to your 
   disk.  It's fully BBS'd with description files compatible with 
   popular MSDOS BBS programs. 
   A spokesman for Walnut Creek said that it is just not feasible for 
   them to have another run made.  When asked specifically about having 
   a few made privately, the spokesman said the entire disk is public 
   domain and freeware, and that Walnut Creek doesn't need to give 
   permission to have anyone copy it.  They're not looking for a 
   royalty or even acknowledgment. 
Q12: How can I transfer my CP/M files to DOS?
A: (Don Maslin, Will Rose, Alan Ogden, Tilmann Reh, Herb Johnson, 
    Trevor Gowen, Hal Bower) 
  (Note: also see Q13 on "disk formats".) 
   One solution is Sydex' excellent shareware program 22DISK which 
   permits reading, writing, and formatting many CP/M format disks on a 
   PC.  Version 1.44 is available at:
   22DISK is shareware and should be registered.  It supports 8-inch 
   drives on PC's, provided either a adaptor is wired to the PC's 
   floppy controller or that a CompatiCard is installed. Sydex or Herb 
   Johnson can provide assistance with using standard PC controllers. 
   Sydex can be reached at: 
              P.O. Box 5700 
              Eugene, OR  97405 
              Voice:  (541)  683-6033 
              FAX:    (541)  683-1622 
              Data:   (541)  683-1385 
   MicroSolutions used to make a program called Uniform and You might 
   be able to locate a copy at a swap meet or from a distributor. There 
   are versions for both the IBM-pc's and a lot of different cp/m 
   Some flavors of PC have a problem with both UniForm and 22disk and 
   UniForm will not operate properly under DRDOS v6.0.  UniForm also 
   fails if the machine clock exceeds ~20MHz.  This has been confirmed 
   with MicroSolutions, and no fix is available. 
   Another solution is the MSODBALL suite of programs by John Elliott. 
   They work by using a format (the msodball format) that is 
   convertible via the main program to become useable on either CP/M 
   (3.x ?) or MSDOS. MSODBALL.COM has been written in such a way that 
   the latest version will run directly under either CP/M or MSDOS. 
   They can be found at: 
   You need not use the DOS machine - there are also at least three 
   transfer programs running under CP/M: TRANSFER (for CP/M-2.2), of 
   which a quick-hack CP/M-3 adaptation also exists; DOSDISK, and MSDOS 
   for CP/M-Plus written by Tilmann Reh, latest version 2.1 of Oct 93. 
   TRANSFER and MSDOS are freely available, DOSDISK is commercial. 
   MSDOS has two related utilities:  MSFORM will create the DOS Boot 
   Record, FAT and directory structure on a freshly formatted disk, and 
   MSDIR will give you a quick look at the main directory of a DOS 
   DosDisk is a standard CP/M product.  As supplied, it runs only on 
   the following specific hardware: 
        all Kaypros equipped with a TurboROM 
        all Kaypros equipped with a KayPLUS ROM and QP/M or CP/M 
        Xerox 820-I equipped with a Puls-2 ROM and QP/M 
        Ampro Little Board 
        SB180 and SB180FX equipped with XBIOS 
        Morrow MD3 and MD11 
        Oneac On! 
        Commodore C128 with CP/M-3 and 1571 drive 
   DosDisk also runs on any of the configurations with B/P Bios 
   (non-banked ZSDOS only), to include the Ampro Little Board, SB-180, 
   SB180FX, YASBEC and P112. 
   There is also a kit version for which the user can write his own 
   driver, provided the BIOS implements a table-driven disk interface. 
   Contact Jay Sage for details.  DosDisk and MSDOS both handle DOS 
   You can also use a null modem or other serial link and terminal 
   emulation programs running on each machine. For example, the CP/M 
   machine could run KERMIT, IMP, or MEX and another program that 
   supports the same file transfer protocol on the second machine, such 
   as Procomm or Hyperterminal on a PC.  The usual problem is getting 
   the terminal program onto the CP/M machine - having someone send you 
   a disk is the easiest way, but you can also use a crude assembler or 
   basic program to transfer the real program, or use pip to send 
   across a hex version (pip can only transfer ascii files.) 
   Remember, these conversion programs only move the data, as is, in 
   its current binary form, from one disk format to another.  They do 
   not reinterpret the data so that a different program can use the 
   information.  However, there are some tools under DOS that will 
   convert word processing file data among different word processors, 
   such as WordStar, Word Perfect, and Microsoft Word.  If the CP/M 
   computer that made the original disk is still running, you might 
   want to try to generate a pure text (ASCII) version of your 
   information (e.g., by "printing to disk") before moving it over to a 
   DOS disk.  If the computer is not working but you still have the 
   program, you might try copying it over to a DOS disk and running it 
   under a CP/M emulator on the DOS machine to produce a text file. 
Q13: How can I convert an (insert name) disk to (insert name) format?
A: (Jay Sage, Curt Schroeder, Mike Gordillo, Helmut Jungkunz, Tilmann Reh, 
   Randy Winchester, Hal Bower, Scot Silverstein) 
   Elliam Associates (see above) offer disk conversion services at 
   modest prices that can convert from just about any format to just 
   about any other format. 
   If you have a Kaypro equipped with an Advent TurboROM, Plu*Perfect 
   Systems offers a program called MULTICPY that can read/write about 
   one hundred different 5 1/4 formats. 
   The simplest way of converting *CP/M formats to a PC* is to use a PC 
   with 22DISK - just copy the files from one CP/M disk to DOS, and 
   then back to the other CP/M disk. (See Q12.) But a few older CP/M 
   disks have what are called "hard sectors". These disks use several 
   physical holes in the disk to mark divisions of data, instead of ONE 
   hole which is used as a timing reference. These disks can only be 
   read by a PC or a CP/M system with suitable hardware.  The problem 
   is NOT the diskette drive, but the controller cabled to the drive: 
   the drives are unmodified, it's all in the diskette controller. CP/M 
   hard-sectored disks come from some older Vector Graphics, 
   Heath/Zenith H89, NorthStar, IMSAI and other CP/M systems. 
   Similarily, it is not possible to directly read/write Apple II CP/M 
   disks on any other host machine because an Apple disk is recorded in 
   GCR which is incompatible with FM/MFM *floppy* disk controllers. 
   The only way to get files out of either kind of these disks is via a 
   serial link with the original host system, or with special hardware 
   on the PC compatible. (See Q12.) 
   An example of PC hardware is a MicroSolutions device called the 
   MatchPoint PC.  When used in conjunction with a MicroSolutions 
   CompatiCard, files can be read from an Apple CP/M disk and transfer 
   to another disk format with a special configuration of UniForm.  The 
   CompatiCard is also able to directly read some hard-sectored disk 
   If your are *lucky* enough to have a *CP/M* B/P BIOS, it comes with 
   a built-in disk format emulation capability, and a library of 
   formats, including the source so that new formats may be added. 
   There exists a program called "Jugg'ler" for the C128's CP/M that 
   will read/write 140 different CP/M formats both 3.5 and 5.25 MFM 
   (and some GCR) formats.  A demo version with 22 formats, and other 
   C128 specific CP/M software, can be found at: 
   The creator/owner of Jugg'ler, Herne Data Systems, is still in 
   business, but no longer sells it. Rather, Jugg'ler's creator, Mike 
   Garamszeghy, has graciously placed it in the public domain. Copies 
   can be obtained from his C128-CP/M web page at:
   His disk format data base and other CP/M related items are also 
   available there. 
   Montezuma Micro CP/M has a "config" utility that allows logical 
   device reassignments, setting up of comm hardware parameters, etc. 
   Option [f] "disk drive definitions" allows the user to set the 
   logical format of any disk drive connected to the system.  There are 
   about 100 different floppy formats provided, from A to Z.  Montezuma 
   Micro often shipped software in Kaypro format, for example.  Using 
   this redefinition utility, it is easy to read "alien" disks, format 
   them, duplicate them to another's format via 'pip' to another 
   The CPU280 CP/M-3 implementation offers the AutoFormat feature which 
   allows to format, read and write almost every disk format. 
Q14: Can I read my 8" disks with my PC?
A: (John Baker, Tom Sullivan) 
   With a program called 22disk, and an adaptor board that you can 
   make, you can read those disks on your PC. All it takes is 
   rearranging some of the lines on the 34 pin cable, and wiring them 
   to the 50 pin cable, and you're in business. 
   The interface on 8" drives and 5 1/4" drives are essentially the 
   same.  The 34 lines on a typical 5 1/4" controller are sufficient to 
   control most 8" disk drives using soft-sectored disks.  Here, is a 
   diagram for a basic conversion cable to allow connection of an 8" 
   drive to an IBM-compatible, AT-style (high density) controller. 
                                                      8" disk drive 
   PC-AT style controller                       Based on Shugart SA-851 
   Grnd. Sig.  Sig. Name                             Sig Name  Sig Grnd 
     1     2   Double/High Density ->> 
                                    >>- Write Current Switch/    2    1 
                                   Active Read Compensation 
                                   User Customizable I/O pins    4    3 
                                    "         "       "    "     6    5 
    33    34 **Ready ---------------<<------------ True Ready    8    7 
                                    <<-------------#Two Sided   10    9 
    33    34 **Disk Change ---------<<----------- Disk Change   12   11 
    31    32   Side 1 Select ------->>-----------#Side Select   14   13 
     3     4   In Use/Open --------->>---------------- In Use   16   15 
    15    16  *Motor On ------------>>------------- Head Load   18   17 
     7     8   Index ---------------<<----------------- Index   20   19 
    33    34 **Ready ---------------<<----------------- Ready   22   21 
                                    <<---------------##Sector   24   23 
     9    10   Drive Select 0 ------>>-------- Drive Select 1   26   25 
    11    12   Drive Select 1 ------>>-------- Drive Select 2   28   27 
    13    14   Drive Select 2 ------>>-------- Drive Select 3   30   29 
     5     6   Drive Select 3 ------>>-------- Drive Select 4   32   31 
    17    18   Direction Select ---->>------ Direction Select   34   33 
    19    20   Step ---------------->>------------------ Step   36   35 
    21    22   Write Data ---------->>------------ Write Data   38   37 
    23    24   Write Gate ---------->>------------ Write Gate   40   39 
    25    26   Track 00 ------------<<-------------- Track 00   42   41 
    27    28   Write Protect -------<<--------- Write Protect   44   43 
    29    30   Read Data -----------<<------------- Read Data   46   45 
                                    <<------##Separation Data   48   47 
                                    <<-----##Separation Clock   50   49 
   This diagram also works in the other direction--that is, to attach 
   high-density 5 1/4" drives to an 8" controller. 
   * - It seems to be a logical substitution since the vast majority of 
       8" drives have continuously running spindles and instead of 
       MOTOR ON require a HEAD LOAD signal.  Also, a controller sends 
       MOTOR ON before a DRIVE SELECT. 
   **- Most 5 1/4" disk drives do not provide a READY signal but send a 
       DISK CHANGE signal on line 34 of the interface.  An 8" drive has 
       provisions for both signals.  Likewise, most AT-style 
       controllers expect a DISK CHANGE signal on line 34, so lines 33 
       and 34 should be connected to lines 11 and 12 of the 8" disk 
       connector.  Also, some 8" drives provide a TRUE_READY signal 
       which is more useful than the standard READY. 
   # - Unused on single sided drives (SA-800/801). 
   ##- Used only on hard-sector configured drives (SA-801/851). 
   Some 5 1/4" disk drives have the option of providing _either_ DISK 
   CHANGE _or_ READY on line 34 (in particular, the TEAC FD55R 
   series).  Some 8" disk controllers do not care about the DISK CHANGE 
   signal, but must have the READY signal.  If you are attaching a 
   high-density 5 1/4" drive to an 8" controller, you may get away with 
   making the drive always ready by shorting lines 21 and 22, but this 
   may cause a few re-tries when switching sides.  If your drive offers 
   a READY signal that your controller can deal with, by all means use 
   The MOTOR ON/HEADLOAD dilemma may also have an alternate solution if 
   you are connecting 5 1/4" drives to an 8" controller.  Some 5 1/4" 
   drives permit motor turn-on by means other than the MOTOR ON 
   signal.  For example, the TEAC FD55R series of drives may be 
   configured to turn the motor on based on the state of the IN USE 
   light.  The IN USE light can, in turn, be set to turn on only on 
   drive select.  Thus selecting the drive automatically turns on the 
   motor and neither a MOTOR ON or IN USE signal need be present. 
   Another way to handle 8 inch drives on a PC is with a Microsolutions 
   Compaticard IV, if you can find one. (MicroSolutions no longer 
   offers this product.) It has the necessary software support to 
   properly handle 8 inch drives, and in both SSSD and DSDD.  This 
   controller can be set up as both a primary controller, or as a 
   secondary. It can support 4 drives, of any type, including 2.8 meg. 
   It supports two MSDOS 8 inch formats, SSSD (about 250k) and DSDD 
   (1.2 meg). It works perfectly with 22disk, and can read and write 
   almost any 8 inch CP/M format. 
Q15: Where can I buy new diskettes?
A: (Don Maslin) 
   California Digital still lists hard and soft sector diskettes - both 
   10 and 16 sector at $9.95.  They also stock 8" drives and diskettes. 
              California Digital, Inc. 
              17700 Figueroa Street 
              Gardena CA 90248 
              310-217-1951   Fax
   One might also try: 
              GLOBAL Computer Supplies 
              2318 East Del Amo Blvd. 
              Dept. RA 
              Compton, CA 90220 
Q16: Can I use the newer floppy drives on my old machine?
A: (Jeffery Jonas, Axel Berger, Dave Wilson) 
   You can. 3.5" and 5.25" are fully hardware compatible and your 
   computer will never notice the difference - unless the 5.25 are HD 
   drives. As 3.5" drives are able to step faster and draw less 
   current, this direction of swapping is totally uncritical. The other 
   way round sometimes proves more tricky. 
   Both 3.5" and 5.25" drives have the same 34 pin interface.  3.5" 
   disks spin at 300 RPM thus the 250k/500k data rates.  5.25" disks 
   spin at 300 RPM for all but the 1.2 Meg capacity, which is 360 RPM, 
   thus the ratios: 
        15 sectors per track / 18 sectors per track 
                   = 300 RPM / 360 RPM 
                   = 1.2 meg / 1.44 Meg 
   All 8" floppy disks spin at 360 RPM too. 
   Most old systems didn't use pin 2, 34.  That's GOOD NEWS since 
   modern 3.5" floppy drives place signals there that the old 
   controllers can't handle.  The ready/disk changed lines changed from 
   the "XT" generation drives to the "AT" generation drives.  Older 
   floppy drives had jumpers for drive select 0-3 and where to place 
   the status signals The "AT" floppy drives assume the "AT" signals 
   and usually allow only setting the middle 2 drive selects, thus the 
   cable twist nonsense.  for completeness, here are the pinouts: 
        Mini/Micro Floppy Interface 
        Pin#  Description         Alternate Functions 
        ----  -----------         ------------------- 
        1     GND                 Eject, Disk Change Reset 
        3-33  Odd pins are GND 
        2     High Density 
        4     Head Load           In Use, Eject 
        6     Drive Select 3 
        8     Index Pulse + 
        10    Drive Select 0      Motor On A    \  IBM twisted 
        12    Drive Select 1      Drive Select B \ cable - both 
        14    Drive Select 2      Drive Select A / drives are 
        16    Motor On            Motor On B    /  strapped DS1 
        18    Direction 
        20    Step 
        22    Write Data 
        24    Write Enable 
        26    Track Zero + 
        28    Write Protect + 
        30    Read Data + 
        32    Select Head 
        34    Disk Changed +      Ready + 
              + signal from drive to controller 
  The following table is extracted from the CompatiCard manual: 
           Card        34   37              50   8 Inch Drive 
     Signal Name       Pin  Pin  Direction  Pin  Signal Name 
     Programmable      2    3       --->    2    Low Current 
     Index             8    6       <---    20   Index 
     Drive Select 1/3  12   8       --->    28   Drive Select 2 
     Motor Enable 1/3  16   10      --->    18   Head Load 
     Step Direction    18   11      --->    34   Direction Select 
     Step Pulse        20   12      --->    36   Step 
     Write Data        22   13      --->    38   Write Data 
     Write Enable      24   14      --->    40   Write Gate 
     Track 0           26   15      <---    42   Track 0 
     Write Protect     28   16      <---    44   Write Protect 
     Read Data         30   17      <---    46   Read Data 
     Select Head 1     32   18      --->    14   Side Select 
   The odd pins of 34 pin connector to odds of 50 pin connector. 
   Pins 21/37 of the DB-37 go to the odd pins on 50 pin connector. 
Q17: Can I run CP/M on my MSDOS/UNIX/68K machine?
A: (Juergen Weber, Udo Munk, Paul Martin, John D. Baker, 
   Mark Litwack, Tilmann Reh, Frank Cringle, Gottfried Ira, 
   TJ Merritt, Russell Marks) 
   Available by anonymous ftp from the primary mirror site 
   OAK.Oakland.Edu and its mirrors: 
   ZSIM is an (extremely accurate) Z80 emulator (80386/40 -8 MHz Z80) 
   in conjunction with a CP/M 80 BIOS, i.e. it simulates a Z80 machine, 
   that can run CP/M.  Together with the original CP/M operating system 
   you have a full Z80-CP/M machine. 
   If you don't have a CP/M system disk at hand, you can use the 
   included public domain CP/M compatible operating system P2DOS. 
   ZSIM uses CP/M format disks, a ram disk and a hard disk.  Supported 
   disk formats are CP/M 86 single sided and double sided, but you can 
   install any singled sided CP/M format PC drives can physically 
   read.  So you can use ZSIM to transfer data to MS-Dos.  The ram disk 
   can be saved to the PC hard disk.  The hard disk is in an MS-Dos 
   file.  A sample hard disk containing the SMALL-C compiler is 
   As ZSIM uses an original operating system and CP/M disks it should 
   run every CP/M program that does not use special hardware.  ZSIM is 
   free for personal use.  Sources of the CP/M BIOS are included. 
   On (formerly: you'll find: 
   (Also available as z80pack.tgz at in the directory 
   This is a Z80 CPU emulation completely written in C, an I/O 
   emulation for a typical CP/M system also is included. The package 
   also comes with the BIOS source for the I/O emulation and a Z80 
   cross-assembler.  It was developed it under COHERENT but it's known 
   that it does work under Linux and SunOS too. You still need a CP/M 
   license to get CP/M running or you might try to get one of the free 
   available CP/M clones running on it. On a 486/66 DX2 running 
   COHERENT it's like a 11Mhz Z80 CPU, so the emulation speed is 
   On ( you'll find: 
             and the patch (by R.M.): 
             for it to work on current glibc-based systems. 
   This package, written by Michael Bischoff, is well integrated into 
   the host operating system.  It provides options to use either a 
   container file for the CP/M disk for full BIOS compatibility, or to 
   access the Linux file system through the included BDOS emulator. 
   The Z80 emulator is written in 86 assembler and the rest is in C.  A 
   pre-assembled ZDOS CCP is included with the package.  The emulation 
   speed on a 486/66 is approximately a 22 Mhz Z80, and on a Pentium/90 
   it is 50 Mhz.  Full source is included. 
   On you'll find: 
   also to be found at: 
   MYZ80 is a Z80/64180 emulator package.  The new 80486, 80386 & 80286 
   machines with the fast hard drives and the snazzy OS/2 operating 
   systems are such a delight... but for many, the Z80 machines still 
   have to be fired up from to time in order to develop code for CP/M 
   and the Z80 chip. Well, not any more, thanks to MYZ80. 
   Other emulators on the market are less than satisfactory solutions. 
   Of the small number which can actually run without causing system 
   errors under the later versions of DOS, apparently none is capable 
   of running real CP/M. Instead they use an emulated version of CP/M 
   which is only as accurate as the developers have bothered to make 
   MYZ80 can run CP/M 3.0 and ZCPR (which is such a useful Z80 
   developer's environment).  So if you suffer from less than perfect 
   Z80 emulation and slow overall performance, give MYZ80 a try, and 
   save the 'real' Z80  machines for those cold winter mornings when 
   you really need the heat.  The author of MYZ80, Simon Cran, can be 
   reached at: 
              Simeon Cran P/L 
              PO Box 5706 
              West End, Queensland, AUstralia 4101 
   (One byte is wrong in the MyZ80 CPM 2.2 bios distributed with the 
   registered version 1.20. Subsequent releases will be fixed, but 
   everyone who has that version will have trouble accessing the ram 
   disk unless the C: drive is accessed first.  To fix the problem 
   change the byte at offset 16CE in MYZ80.SYS. It will be 03 but 
   should be 04.) 
   22NICE is (like 22DISK) from Sydex. It emulates the application 
   program while translating all BDOS and BIOS calls into the 
   appropriate DOS calls.  This way, it's comparably fast and allows 
   for free use of the DOS file system (including paths). You are able 
   to map drive/user combinations to particular paths in the DOS file 
   system. The emulator can be configured for different emulation modes 
   (8080, Z80, and automatic detection) and different terminal 
   emulations. There are two run-time options: First, you can create a 
   small COM file which will then load both the emulator and the CP/M 
   program (contained in a .CPM file to avoid confusions); Second, you 
   can build the emulator and the application together to a single COM 
   file (which is larger then but needs no run-time module).  You can 
   obtain a demonstration copy from:
   Yaze is another Z80 and CP/M emulator designed to run on Unix 
   systems.  It is available via ftp and www at: 
   The package consists of an instruction set simulator, a CP/M-2.2 
   bios written in C which runs on the Unix host, a monitor which loads 
   CP/M into the simulated processor's ram and makes Unix directories 
   or files look like CP/M disks, and a separate program (cdm) which 
   creates and manipulates CP/M disk images for use with yaze. 
   Yaze emulates all documented and most undocumented Z80 instructions 
   and flag bits.  A test program is included in the package which 
   compares machine states before and after execution of every 
   instruction against results from a real Z80.  Yaze is independent of 
   the host machine architecture and instruction set, written in ANSI 
   standard C, and is provided with full source code under the GNU 
   General Public License.  It supports CP/M disk geometries as images 
   in Unix files or as read-only disks constructed on-the-fly.  These 
   disks are indistinguishable from real disks for even the most 
   inquisitive, low-level CP/M programs and can be mounted and 
   unmounted at will during emulation. 
   Parag Patel provides a z80 and CP/M emulator at: 
   This archive includes complete sources and has been ported to a 
   number of Unix systems as well as DOS and the Mac.  Executables for 
   both are available in the same directory.  It run exceedingly fast 
   on DEC Alphas.  It can use either PDOS or CP/M 2.2.  The PDOS image 
   is included with the sources and the modified source for PDOS can be 
   found in the same directory as well. 
   There is a CP/M 2.2 Simulator that simulates an 8080 CPU and CP/M 
   2.2 environment.  The heart of the simulator is written in 680x0 
   assembly language for speed.  It has been tested under DNIX (a SVR2 
   compatible with many SVR3, BSD, Xenix, and Sun extensions), on a 
   68030 NeXT, and on a 68030 Amiga running SVR4.  One 'benchmark' 
   shows that on machines of the 68020/68030 class the simulator 
   performs about as well as a 7 MHz Z-80 would.  Other tests indicate 
   that this is somewhat optimistic.  The simulator was posted to 
   alt.sources and can be found at: 
   in files 9954 to 9959. 
Q18: Where can I get a boot disk for (insert system name)?
A: (Don Maslin, Herb johnson, Trevor Gowen) 
   Getting a system disk is pretty easy - if Dina-SIG CP/M System Disk 
   Archives has it.  However, some dialogue with the requester has 
   usually been necessary to assure that we are talking about the same 
   Jurassic inhabitant!  There are just too many variants in the CP/M 
   world.  A request with specifics on the computer, an address to mail 
   to, and some recompense is all it takes.  Since this is an unfunded 
   effort on the part of the SIG, the costs of media, mailer, and 
   postage  must be recouped.  In general, and there are variations, 
   this runs $3 for the first disk and $2 or less for each additional. 
   Eight inch disks are a bit more!  However, a swap can be arranged if 
   the other party has disks that are not duplicative of ones already 
   in the archive.  If you can help augment the archive, yours is 
 +  Regular comp.os.cpm newsgroup readers will be aware that, sadly,
   Don passed away in 2004. It is hoped that the archives have been
   "recovered" but, as yet, their new home has not been reported.
   Once this is known I will update this section (FTG).
Q19: What terminal emulation programs are available?
A: (Peter A. Schuman, Howard Goldstein) 
   The leading CP/M public domain or freeware (author kept copyright 
   but distributed it for free) modem programs are: 
        MDM740 - The last of the "MDMxxx" programs. 
        IMP245 - This is nice, and works smoothly within what it does. 
        What it does, it does very well.  IF you have slow floppy 
        drives, there is a patch to cut down the receive buffer size. 
        MEX114 - different from the above two, but minimally functional 
        with just a MDM740 overlay.  To use all of its fine features, 
        you need MEX overlay for your machine. 
        ZMP15  -  This program includes ZMODEM file transfers. 
        KERMIT - This program may have the widest implementation base 
        because it uses only printable characters for its file 
        transfers.  This is a plus because the MODEM7 family of 
        protocols send binary characters that sometimes conflict with 
        the underlying system use.  It is a minus because many more 
        characters must be sent and thus is slower.  KERMIT may be 
        found on 
        QTERM43F - This is somewhat like using QMODEM on an MSDOS 
        machine.  Qterm has VT100 emulation mode as well as XMODEM and 
        KERMIT protocol.  If you can get (or write) a good overlay, 
        this is a nice program. (Bug fixes to 43E were released in a 
        separate library to bring it up to 43F.  The FIX library did 
        not include a new binary; users had to do their own patching.) 
   For high speed transfers, you will probably need interrupt-driven 
   routines, which are available for some these.  The exact baud rate 
   where it becomes necessary varies by system and program. 
Q20: How do you unpack a .ARK or .ARC file?
A: (Gier Tjoerhom, Don Kirkpatrick) 
    Archive files are a collection of related files packed together so 
    they stay together.  They have somewhat been replaced by librarys, 
    but are still encountered often.  The C or K at the end only 
    differentiate the original packing program, they are otherwise 
    identical.  Some archives are self extracting, just rename them 
    with a .com ending and execute them.  Others must be unpacked with 
    a program, unarc16.ark containing one of the most popular (in a 
    self extracting archive). This archive can be found at: 
Q21: How do you unpack a .lbr file?
A: (William P. Maloney, Peter A. Schuman) 
   A .lbr is a single file that contains a number of compressed files 
   inside.  The files must be extracted from the .lbr before the can be 
   One very good library extract program is called  It's 
   simple to use and uncrunches the files at the same time.  EXAMPLE: 
        A>lbrext b:myfile.lbr c:*.* uo 
   This takes the file on 'A' to extract all the files in 
   myfile.lbr on 'B' and put them on 'C' uncrunched.  A simple 'lbrext' 
   first will show you how to use the .com file. 
   Other popular library maintenance programs are LUE, DELBR, and NULU, 
   the latter being one of the best CP/M programs for handling LBRs. 
   However, don't use NULU to extract and unsqueeze simultaneously.  It 
   occasionally screws up doing this, and it can trash an entire disk 
   when it does so. 
   LT31 is also able to unpack libraries and also supports all 
   current compression standards (including LZH 2.0!).  It is a very 
   useful utility and can replace several single programs. 
Q22: What are all these .xQx, .xYx, and .xZx file types?
A: (Don Kirkpatrick) 
   These are compressed files, a.k.a. squeezed or crunched files.  They 
   must be uncompressed before they can be used.  They differ in the 
   compression algorithm; .?Q? was the first generation and .?Y? the 
   newest.  There are many fine programs that uncompress files, but 
   most handle only one or two compression types (e.g. SQ111.ARC and 
   CRUNCH24.LBR).  One program that will uncompress all three types can 
   be found in CRLZH20.LBR. 
Q23: Are any of these .ARK, .LBR, or CRUNCH utilities on MSDOS?
A: (Geir Tjoerhom, Mike Finn) 
   Yes, MSDOS versions do exist and can be located as follows: 
           (.LBR) (.ARK)       (.xQx)     (.xZx)          (.LBR, .xQx, .xYx, .xZx) 
   Also check out the files in /pub/unix-c/cpm. 
   CFX is the acronym for Cp/m File eXchange by Carson Wilson. As its 
   name suggests, CFX is a tool intended to allow quick access to CP/M 
   files.  While CFX will operate on standard ASCII files, its main 
   strength is its ability to access files stored with the special 
   archiving and compression methods native to the CP/M operating 
   system.  Specifically, CFX can handle files compressed with Roger 
   Warren's LZH utilities (.xYx), Steve Greenberg's CRUNCH utilities 
   (.xZx), "squeezed" files (.xQx), and archives built using Gary 
   Novosielski's Library definition (.LBR). 
Q24: Why does my Kaypro drop characters above (insert baud rate)?
A: (Jeff Wieland, Stephen Griswold, Don Kirkpatrick) 
   The basic problem is that updating the screen takes too long and some 
   incoming characters are missed.  The exact baud rate where 
   characters begin to disappear depends on the configuration of the 
   Kaypro and the terminal program.  Generally, the older non-graphic 
   Kaypros will run at a much higher baud rate before characters start 
   to disappear.  Stock Kaypros are not interrupt driven and the BIOS 
   ROM has several built-in delays, which demanded too much of a 
   2x/4x/10's time. 
   Several things can be done to help the situation.  If your Kaypro 
   came with the MITE software package, you can use it for high speed 
   terminal emulation.  A Kaypro 2X using MITE can go as fast as 19200 
   bps.  MITE uses interrupts to achieve this. 
   Sometimes the problem can be ignored. A 2X will drop characters at 
   300 baud using Kermit-80.  File transfers work fine at 19200 bps. 
   It is always a good ides to run file transfers in the quiet mode if 
   terminal mode is dropping characters as then the display update time 
   is minimized. 
   The graphic-equipped Kaypros can be significantly improved in 
   terminal mode just by turning off the status line at the bottom of 
   the screen.  As most terminal programs have an initialize sequence 
   available, just send the no status line command to the Kaypro - 
   <ESC>, C, 7 [1BH, 43H, 37H in hex]. 
   There are several hardware changes that can lessen or eliminate the 
   problem.  There is a speed modification for the 1983 Kaypro-II's & 
   IV's requiring changing some chips to faster versions and outfitting 
   the back with a toggle switch.  Upgrading to a MicroCornucopia MAX-8 
   or Advent TurboROM also helps. 
   If your machine is equipped with the Advent TurboROM and you choose 
   to run QTERM, Don Kirkpatrick can send you an interrupt driver that 
   allows the graphic-enhanced Kaypros to work just fine to at least 
   2400 baud. 
Q25: What is an Advent TurboROM?
A: (Don Maslin) 
   The Advent TurboROM is a firmware upgrade to the Kaypro.  It 
   replaces the original Kaypro system ROM and provides flexible 
   configurations, additional disk formats, greater speed, and bug 
   fixes.  Contact point for this is: 
              The Computer Journal 
              P.O. Box 3900 
              Citrus Heights, CA 95611-3900 
              Voice: (800) 424-8825 or (916) 722-4970 
              Fax:   (916) 722-7480 
              Email        tcj_TA_psyber_MOC
Q26: How can I add a hard drive to my CP/M machine?
A: (Don Kirkpatrick, Herb Johnson) 
   If you have a Kaypro, TCJ - The Computer Journal can sell you a hard 
   drive conversion kit. (See Q20.) Emerald Microware no longer offers 
   hardware support. 
   Tilmann Reh, an engineer in Germany, has designed an IDE hard drive 
   interface that plugs into a Z-80 socket, and described it in The 
   Computer Journal magazine as the Generic IDE (GIDE). He has produced 
   a number of kits that include the circuit board, parts, and even a 
   time of day clock chip. Several people have bought these (as of Jan 
   1996) and are beginning to write software to support these on 
   various Z-80 based computers (including ADAM and TRS-80 as well as 
   CP/M based systems). 
   TCJ is no longer distributing the GIDE, contact Tilmann Reh 
   directly w.r.t. the status of availability and support for this 
   product. (Once I have an up-to-date e-mail address or other contact 
   info. I will add it here - for now, Ken Walker  was the 
   last person known to H.J. who had contacted Tilmann. Also check for 
   individual postings in the newsgroup in respect of updated GIDE 
   software. FTG) 
Q27: What belongs in the unpopulated board area on a Kaypro?
A: (Don Maslin, Don Kirkpatrick, Peter A. Schuman) 
   A clock and modem go there.  The modem is rather useless as it is 
   only 300 baud.  The clock/calendar is useful.  The Computer Journal, 
   issue 64, Nov./Dec. 1993, describes the installation procedure. 
   There is also an area on a 2X for a hard drive interface. 
Q28: What is The Computer Journal?
A: (David Baldwin) 
    The Computer Journal has had many articles on CP/M and Z-System and 
    has all back issues available.  TCJ also sells software that was 
    formerly from Sage MicroSystems East and Kaypro items from Chuck 
    The focus of The Computer Journal is source code and schematics for 
    "do-it-yourself" software and hardware projects. We feature mostly 
    low level projects in hardware, assembly language, 'C', and 
    sometimes Forth. Our articles cover PC's, microcontrollers, and 
    embedded and older systems. 
    In general, we cover software and hardware that one person can work 
    with, where you can "do it by yourself". This includes common 
    programming languages and boards and systems where you can identify 
    (and get) the parts and get code to make it work. Source code from 
    the articles is posted on the TCJ Web pages and BBS so you can 
    download it instead of typing it in. 
    The subscription rate is $24 for 6 issues or $44 for 12. 
    Subscriptions may be sent to: 
              The Computer Journal 
              P.O. Box 3900 
              Citrus Heights, CA 95611-3900 
              Voice: (800) 424-8825 or (916) 722-4970 
              Fax:   (916) 722-7480 
   The The Computer Journal has it's own mailing list.  To subscribe, 
   send an email message to 'Majordomo_TA_psyber_MOC' with 
             subscribe list-tcj <your@email.address> 
   as the body of the message. 'list-tcj' is a digested mailing list - 
   the messages are collected during the day and then sent out to 
   subscribers in the middle of the night.  That way, you only get one 
   email message from the list on any day. 
   The Computer Journal (TCJ) is also on the Internet. 
              Email        tcj_TA_psyber_MOC
Q29: Are there other magazines supporting CP/M?
A: (Jay Sage) 
   The Z-Letter from David McGlone is no more.  Classic Computing 
   (formerly Historically Brewed), edited by David Greelish is 
   available at: 
              Classic Computing Press 
              5227 Seaspray Ave. 
              Jacksonville, FL 32244 
   These magazines may list other publications, support groups and CP/M 
   supporting companies. 
Q30: Does anybody support Amstrad machines?
A: (Matthew Phillips, Bill Roch, Howard Fisher) 
   WACCI on
      A directory of suppliers for Amstrad CPC and PCW machines 
      An "email helpline" of contacts who are willing to give advice 
      A listing of other Amstrad user groups and magazines 
      Forthcoming events in the Amstrad world 
      The WACCI PD Library listings - both Amstrad and CP/M stuff. 
   There is also information on WACCI itself, the UK's biggest Amstrad 
   CPC user club, including details of subscription rates. 
   Amstrad support is also available from Bill Roch. He offers 
   software, hardware and does repairs on the PCW's - 8256, 8512 and 
   9512. He may provide the most support for the wonderful Amstrad in 
   the U.S. 
              Bill Roch 
              4067 Arizona Avenue 
              Atascadero, CA  93422 
              (805) 466-8440 - phone 
              (805) 461-1666 - fax 
              broch_TA_thegrid_TEN - email 
    LocoScript Software has been bought by SD Microsystems but still have 
    "their own" web page. This is mainly concerned with proprietary word processing 
    software, but has some CP/M related stuff and has links to other 
    useful PCW CP/M related sites. Try:
Q31: Does anybody support Sharp Machines?
A: (Maurice Hawes, Mike Mallett) 
   The SHARP USERS CLUB, based in the U.K. but with members in Europe, 
   South Africa, and Australia. The SUC started in 1980 and its quality 
   Magazine, published 3 times a year, covers ALL Sharp computers, 
   including the latest PC laptops. The SUC has a large library of PD 
   software for all the older Sharp machines such as: 
   Z80 machines (Sharp Basic Tape/Disk OS or CP/M programs):  MZ-80K, 
   MZ-80B, MZ-80A, MZ-700, MZ-800, MZ-3500, and PC-3201 (The PC-3201 
   was known as the ZY-3200 in the USA). 
   Also Z80 machines that were sold mainly or exclusively in Japan 
   e.g.  X1, MZ-2500. 
   Early 8086 machines (CP/M-86 or non-IBM Sharp MS-DOS programs): 
   MZ-5500, MZ-5600, 'SHARPWRITER', PC-5000 'Bubble' machine. 
   The SUC can supply hardware upgrades and documentation for many of 
   the above machines. Contact : 
              Maurice Hawes 
              Sharp Users Club 
              6 Belle Vue 
              The Esplanade 
              Dorset DT4 8DR United Kingdom 
              phone: +44 1305 783518 
+  The Sharp Users Website is at

Q32: What is ZCPR and the Z System?
A: (Jay Sage, Mike Finn, Don Kirkpatrick, Dave Baldwin) 
   The original ZCPR was written in Z80 code and was called the "Z80 
   Command Processor Replacement".  It was a drop-in replacement for 
   the Digital Research CCP (Console Command Processor) and adhered to 
   the 800H space restriction.  ZCPR2 (February 14, 1983) was the first 
   experiment in greatly extending the power of the command processor. 
   It added additional memory modules for supporting such things as 
   multiple commands on a line, a dynamically reconfigurable command 
   search path, and directory names associated with drive/user areas. 
   The ideas and implementation in ZCPR2 were only half-baked, and they 
   came to logical fruition in ZCPR3 (Richard Conn's 3.0 and Jay Sage's 
   3.3 and 3.4). 
   ZCPR3 gives you UNIX-like flexibility.  Features implemented include 
   shells, aliases, I/O redirection, flow control, named directories, 
   search paths, custom menus, passwords, on line help, and greater 
   command flexibility.  ZCPR3 can be found on many BBS and SIMTEL 
   mirrors.  The Z System commercial version is available for a nominal 
   fee from The Computer Journal.  Further details can be found in the 
   text "ZCPR3, The Manual", by Richard Conn, ISBN 0-918432-59-6. 
   You can find a detailed history of the development of ZCPR and the Z 
   System in Jay Sage's column in issue #54 of The Computer Journal. 
   This article celebrated the 10th anniversary of ZCPR, which was 
   first released on February 2, 1982.  His "ZCPR33 User's Guide" also 
   has a section on the history. 
   There still are active Z-nodes supporting Z-system and many RCP/M's 
   supporting CP/M as well as some special interests.  As of November 
   7, 1995, the known BBS's supporting the Z-System are: 
    Z-Node  Sysop                 Telephone      Type of BBS 
      3    Jay Sage             617 965 7046    PC    33,600 baud *** 
      5    Ian Cottrell         613 829 2530  Z-Syst   2,400 baud 
      6    Finn, Morgen, Isaac  215 535 0344  Z-Syst   2,400 baud *** 
      9    Don Maslin           619 454 8412    PC    14,400 baud 
     33    Jim Sands            405 237 9282  Z-Syst   2,400 baud 
     36    Richard Mead         626 799 1632    PC    28,800 baud 
     45    Richard Reid (Ken)   713 937 8886    PC      ?    baud 
           Michael McCarrey     509 489 5835  Z-Syst   2,400 baud 
           Wil Schuemann        702 887 0408    PC    28,800 baud 
           Wil Schuemann        702 887 0507  Z-Syst   9,600 baud (Soon) 
     TCJ   Dave Baldwin         916 722 5799    PC    14,400 baud 
     *** Now closed! 
   There is also a Z-node in Munich, Germany, 
     51    Helmut Jungkunz      +49.8801.2453         28,800 baud 
   and one in Perth, Australia. 
     62                         +61 9 450 0200 
Q33: What ever happened to the Z800?
A: (Ralph Becker-Szendy, Frank Zsitvay) 
   The Z800 was planned to be NMOS, and was finally implemented as the 
   Z280 in CMOS, five years late.  And it does have a 4kB/8kB paged 
   MMU, and separate I/D space, and cache. There are small differences 
   between the Z800 preliminary spec and the final Z280 specification. 
   The call for Z280 end-of-life last time buys went out in December, 
   The Z180 was not an outgrowth of the Z800.  It was a joint effort 
   between Zilog and Hitachi.  The first two versions of the HD64180 
   were slightly different from the current Z180.  The current HD64180 
   and Z180 are identical, and both have flags in one of the control 
   registers to emulate the earlier versions.  The changes are mostly 
   bus timing, as the HD64180 was designed to interface with Motorola 
   6800 style peripherals as well as Intel and Zilog, which wasn't too 
   strange since Hitachi second sources some Motorola 6800 series 
Q34: What is the status of the Z380?
A: (Ralph Becker-Szendy) 
   The Z380 is a 32-bit version binary-compatible upgrade of the 
   HD180.  The 18MHz part in the 100-pin QFP package is shipping.  The 
   plan for a PGA-package for the Z380 has been scrapped.  Zilog is 
   working on a 25MHz part, but it isn't quite ready yet.  The 
   "Preliminary Product Specfication", Zilog part number DC6003-02, 
   documents the part.  According to the manual, the plans include a 
   40MHz part, but the time frame is uncertain. 
Q35: What is the KC80?
A: (Ralph Becker-Szendy) 
   There was an announcement in the trade press about a deal between 
   Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Zilog. Kawasaki has developed 
   something called the KC80, which is a Z80 (no MMU, extended address 
   space, or 32-bit enhancements), but speeded up to execute most 
   instructions in one or two cycles, and running at 20MHz.  Zilog has 
   the rights to the design. The catch is that Zilog is currently not 
   planning to sell it as a chip. 
Q36: What is the S-100 bus (also known as IEEE-696 bus)?
A: (Herb Johnson) 
   Among the earliest microcomputers offered to electronic hobbyists in 
   the mid-1970's was the Altair 8800 by MITS. It was offered as a $400 
   kit in an article in the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics 
   magazine.  Each functional block of the computer, such as the 
   processor, memory, or I/O required at that time many logic or memory 
   chips each. So a card was designed for each function, connected 
   together by plugging into a common bus of parallel connections or 
   "motherboard". The function and timing of signals on the 100 pins of 
   that bus became known as the "S-100 bus". The Altair was distinctive 
   for its "front panel" which displayed binary address and data on 
   LED's and which provided toggle switches to control the processor, 
   much like minicomputers of the era. 
   While not the first microcomputer or microcontroller to be offered 
   for public sale, the Altair 8800 is often cited as the "first 
   personal computer" as it was a widely accepted and visually 
   recognized product; it recieved a lot of press coverage inside and 
   outside the electronics industry; and it set a manufacturing 
   standard for a new industry. It and its successors were certainly 
   early yet enduring leaders in affordable personal, business, and 
   industrial computers. Only the IMSAI 8080 compares in recognition 
   value among hobbyists, but the Altair is often cited by the popular 
   At first, MITS (and almost immediately others) produced cards which 
   were compatible to the Altair bus. Soon, IMSAI and others followed 
   with the production of competitive yet (somewhat) compatible 
   systems.  The S-100 bus evolved as other manufacturers, notibly 
   IMSAI, made slight changes to the Altair bus signals and improved 
   the front panel. Yet other manufacturers used digital designs that 
   either depended on special signals from their own cards, or had 
   signal timing requirements that varied between manufacturers. Over 
   time, these differences and the limits of the original Altair/IMSAI 
   produced a number of manufacturer-specific bus variations for 
   extended addressing, bus operations, memory refresh and so on. MITS, 
   IMSAI, Cromenco, Compupro, Ithica Intersystems and Northstar were 
   among the major S-100 systems manufacturers of the time. Card 
   manufacturers are too numerous to list. Most S-100 systems used the 
   8080, Z80, or 8085 processors, but some companies produced cards 
   with almost any available 8 or 16-bit processor. 
   Bus signal differences were finally addressed in 1983 with the 
   publication of the IEEE-696 standard by the Institute of Electrical 
   and Electronic Engineers.  The standard was previously in use 
   primarily by Compupro and Ithica. As CP/M personal systems went to 
   single-board designs with no bus at all, the introduction of new 
   S-100 designs peaked. Further competition, price pressures, and 
   finally the IBM PC caused new S-100 system designs for business and 
   personal use to drop in the mid-1980's. A notible system of the era 
   was the Heath\Zenith Z-100, a dual processor 8085/8088 system that 
   could run CP/M 80, CP/M 86 and MS-DOS: and *very* similar to the 
   popular Compupro 8\16 system. Zenith sold thousands of Z-100's to 
   the military.  Incidently, many systems of the mid-1980s began to 
   run other operating systems, such as CP/M-compatible Turbodos, ZCPR 
   and Z-system; and various UNIX-compatible OS's on 68000's, 80286's, 
   and other processors. 
   New IEEE-696 systems were subsequently developed through the end of 
   the 1980's, primarily for industrial and/or development (non-CP/M) 
   applications, particularly where multiprocessing or speed were 
   important. Up to at least 1993, Compupro and Cromemco still 
   supported these systems at commercial prices, but apparently they 
   did not support their prior CP/M systems except as cards and 
   documentation for sale. New S-100 cards were also introduced 
   throughout the 1980's, but declining through the end of the decade. 
   Zenith's Z-100 system is supported by some active user groups and 
   on-line maillists such as Usenet's comp.sys.zenith.z100. Northstar 
   systems owners correspond occasionally on comp.sys.northstar. 
   One person who provides S-100 cards, documention, and some support 
   is Herb Johnson. As "Dr. S-100" he wrote (1994-96) a regular column 
   in The Computer Journal. He hopes to have a book of his TCJ columns 
   available sometime in 2000. He can be reached at: 
              Herbert R. Johnson 
              Dr. S-100 
              59 Main Blvd 
              Ewing NJ 08618 
              (609) 771-1503 
|             Email: hjohnson_TA_retrotechnology_MOC
|             Web page:
+                   or:
Q37: Anyone know a good source for cross assemblers?
A: (Roger Hanscom, Mike Morris) 
   There are a variety of sources for cross platform development tools. 
   The C Users' Group (1601 W. 23rd St., Suite 200, Lawrence, KS 
   66046-2700) has a library of software that includes all kinds of 
   development tools.  Source code is distributed with many of them. 
   They charge $4/disk and $3.50 s&h per order, and can supply 3.5" or 
   5.25" DOS formats.  Those of you seeking assemblers or disassemblers 
   will be particularly interested in volumes number 398, 363 (2 
   disks), 348, 346 (2 disks), 338 (2 disks), 335 (4 disks), 316, 303, 
   and 292(4 disks).  They also market a CD-ROM of volumes 100 through 
   364 for $49.95 list (it can usually be found at computer shows for 
   $25 to $35).  They can be reached at 913/841-1631 FAX: 913/841-2624. 
   The Circuit Cellar BBS is on-line 24 hours per day with some cross 
   development tools, particularly for CPU's that are commonly used as 
   controllers.  They have a Courier HST running 2400/9600 bps at 
   203/871-0549, and another line that will do up to 14.4k bps (8N1) at 
   203/871-1988.  Both of these numbers are in Connecticut. 
   The Motorola BBS is in Austin, Texas, on 512/440-3733.  They have 
   downloadable cross development products mostly for the 68xx and 
   68xxx architectures.  Like the Circuit Cellar BBS, this BBS seems to 
   specialize in micro-controller development.  Many of these files can 
   also be accessed over the network on 
   2500AD software lists a Z80 assembler, a Z80 C compiler (that 
   includes the assembler in the package), a Z280 assembler, a Z280 C 
   compiler (that includes the assembler), and a Z380 assembler. 
   Don't forget to look in the old familiar places, such as and 
   The Walnut Creek CDROM has some tools from some of the sources 
   listed above on the CP/M CDROM. 

Limited HTML formatting and links by: F. Trevor Gowen
Last modified: 6th. January, 2005

Return to my home page